Multiple infections were found in three women in the first test, and one of them was HPV negative in the second test. När ett onormalt resultat hittas, guidas utövaren, beroende på typen av resultat, till ett beslut av vaksam väntan och retesting mot mer invasiv diagnostisk testning. Two other women had a single type infection in the first test but multiple infections in the second test. In post-menopausal women, due to hormonal changes, the transformation zone where precursor lesions develop, is situated in the cervical canal and is therefore not accessible for proper examination and sampling [ 14 ]. Ett annat möjligt abnormt Pap smear resultat är Squamous intraepithelial lesion, som kan kategoriseras ytterligare i låg kvalitet och hög grad. Om cellerna klassificeras som högkvalitativa, finns det större sannolikhet för att cancer kan utvecklas inom en snar framtid. Twenty women underwent cesarean section due to diagnosed or clinically suspected cancer, combined with the Wertheim-Meigs radical hysterectomy in six women.
Colposcopy thus gave poor guidance for taking biopsy, as the transformation zone was not fully visible.
Support for down-staging of pregnancy-associated cervical cancer
Till innehåll Läs mer om hur kakor används på gu. Cytology and histology showed CIN I in one woman and was normal in the other. Vaginal lesions were found with colposcopy in three cases and biopsy for histological evaluation showed vaginal intraepithelial dysplasia VAIN I in all three cases. Om sådana celler hittas, kommer vårdgivaren omedelbart att rekommendera ytterligare test för diagnos. We hope that our results will serve as motivation to conduct studies focusing on older women also, in order to effectively reduce the prevalence of cervical cancer in this age group. All invasive cervical cancer cases in Sweden and five population-based control women per case were investigated. Strander B, Hallgren J, Sparen P Effect of ageing on cervical or vaginal cancer in Swedish women previously treated for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3: